Author: Rosenberg, 2001
this book address the e-learning issues from an industry ankle. the author uses a lot of useful example from real life with real people.
- in business: “it is a means to an end” for better: cost, productivity, income and so on.
- in context of business: “it is the process by which people acquire new skills or knowledge for the purpose of enhancing their performance”. and again for less cost and better revenue.
Training: “to facilitating and improving performance”. but training is used when there is a need to shape the learning, to achieve a certain goal then the instruction is used. it can be used in different ways: in classroom, via the phone, or PC including lectures, case study, drill and practice, simulation, laboratories and small group work. training has the following 4 elements:
- an intent to enhance performance in a a certain way.
- a design that reflects that instructional strategy.
- the media.
- a more formalized easement
but when we have a situation of learning we need to be careful if it requires information or instruction. Instruction means training and information means knowledge management:
- focus on specific learning outcome.
- purpose defined by instructors
- based on users’ needs and characters
- sequenced for memory retention
- contains presentation, feedback, practice, etc
- focus on specific organization or content
- purpose defined by users
- based on the characteristics of targeted users and particular knowledge
- sequenced for reference
- centered on effective presentation
- comprehensive approach
- information: to be up-to-day
- open culture: that employees share their knowledge
- effective technology: not too cost and does the work.
the text based communication the e-learning depends on promotes and supports the collaborative and critical thinking since writing requires higher cognitive level than just face to face conversation. at the same time, teachers (since there are more time and space) ask more cognitive questions.
there are 3 element key of a community of inquiry: cognitive, social and teaching presence.
the technology of e-learning:
1. 1st generation: used text books. phone and e-mails. behaviorist. freedom in time and place.
2. 2nd generation: used cognitive theory, restrict for time or place. used computer assisted instruction (CD). the teacher is only for evaluation and guidnes.
3. 3rd generation: gives opportunity for students to recreate knowledge: collaborative and critical thinking. used audio, video and telecommunications.
4. 4th generation: used CMC, and all others.
it is the ability that people who belong to a community to show their real personality as people through the used communication medium.
how can the written communication channel replace the face-to -face communication where one can read the body language and hear the speech tone? students actually could overcome this problem while using the communication skills. it is good to mention here that the leanness of the medium depends on the task (purpose).
i start read E-learning in the 21 th century by:Garrison and Anderson ( 2003).
very interesting book for those who are interested in the distance education in general and e-learning in particular. so far the book is easy to read (and that what i notice of Anderson’s writing style).
at the beginning the authors identified e-learning as learning via the internet. they are talking about how education is shifting from teaching into teach students about learning by themselves and that is because of the huge information explosion this age witnesses. so we need to help the students to deal with this information explosion by teaching them how to be better learners for life: self-directed learning. in addition to focus on the development of the critical thinking.
they also stress the idea that they depend on: collaborative and nonconstructive view of teaching and learning. where the relationship is strong and needed between the personal knowledge (personal making sense) and the social influence in shaping this educational experience. so this is a relationship between inner and outer worlds. this view is supported by Dewey (1938) who says that this relationship between the subjective and objective worlds is important in away that collaborative allows ideas to be communicated and confirmed. in this sense, the internet provides a powerful source of information but it needs continuity to be educative.
the book i am reading is: Educational Technology: the development of a concept. the first chapter presents the history of the educational technology’s name and how it has been influenced by three main issues: engineering, science and Audiovisual education. the argument in this chapter shows that the field should be named: educational engineering for the nature of the field of:
1. being systematic
2. applications of science
3. emphasized the efficient utilization of resources
4. the goal is the production of wealth.
the nature of the educational field meets the engineering’s one. so both share the same concepts.
on the other hand, the educational field uses science in different ways:
1. study children in educational settings,
2. Dewey’s idealization of scientific inquiry as a general model of reflective thinking.
3. since is used measurement and standards to control predictable outcomes.
then was the influence of the Audiovisual educational movement that introduced the hardware and the equipment AV after the WWII into the classrooms.
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