Clark (1989), current progress and future directions for research in instructional technology

  • the author believes that there are quantity but not quality research recently noticing mostly because of poorly conceptualized questions.
  • he also believes that researchers should pay more attention to the literature review and making sure that they cover the all related roots of the problem they are investegating. meaning that they should include psychology, political science for example, in their literature review including WHY we are doing this not only WHAT.
  • researchers also should focus on posing a good research question
  • then for the hypothesis
  • include statistic methodology in their reserach

instructional design research:

  • a very few reserachs compares between ID models or theories
  • there are 2 kinds of theories: Procedural (how) and declaratice (why) knowledge. so tasks could be taught either way.
  • Clark suggests strongly to adapt a prescriptive approach (especially for IT research).

IT research:

  • reserachers hsould deffierntiate between: Instructional design reserach (to generalize about training principles) and instructional development research(implementation issues).

the characteristics of prespective research:

  • it describes how things work
  • it is a science that links basic research and the solution to practical problems.
  • it is critisized that it will be limited in generalization.

Winn, W. 1989, toward a rational and theoretical basis for eduational technology

educational technology and education:
Heinich (1970) suggested a paradigm for Instructional management:

  • media were seen as a tool in teachers’ hands: (it failed )
  • no teachers are involved, only the media (it dehumanize the teaching)
  • teachers and media are partners (ideal)

then in 1984 he updated it int believing that Ed tech should not be a part of education but of technology because the first did not help the field to grow into profession. so he believes we should take the field in order to grow outside the public school and away from just alter it or improve it to teacher-based model but it should concentrates on developing an alternative to the latest model. in other words, we need to find alternatives to the traditional education, but why? and why take it out of the public schools? because the latest failed to adapt the technology because the teachers are qualified enough without the technology.
but we need alternative to the traditional education because more people need instruction where there are no teachers, such as in training and distance education.

Technology as “recording medium”:
the idea is to make instruction adaptive and flexible. when when design an instruction to stand alone without a teacher then it should be carefully designed while considering the students carefully. however, instruction has been separated from implementation and that hurts the whole procedure while lost the flexibility and ignored the students. what is needed is a system that allow teachers to make changes during the instruction. it is important to mention that ID starts with behaviorism and it is hard to change this.

Technology imitates teaching:
instructions are tried to imitate the teachers, and most of them are driven from experimental research and teacher-observation while analyze the students. so there is the feedback, attention to the activities, guidness. so here comes the interactive computers. which means re humanize the process without the teachers’ interference.

The theory and practice of instructional design:
so the direction is designers will create systems that design instructions. so they should operate from theoretical principles not from from atheoretical techniques. these first principles are affected by learning theories and instructional theory. so instructions have not been come into cognitive theory (that is more complex) yet because they are occupied by behaviorism.
for cognitive approach, it supports that learning is a generative process.

The provenance of first principles:
since ID depends on experiments and observations, there are 2 factors: does our field needs the basic research (that related to learning and instruction)? and the relationship between descriptive and perspective? believing that instructions should depend on descriptive theory that is taken from basic research (this is the solution for designers) although they would face trial. however, the skilled designers know when to use descriptive theory or perspective theory(that does not tell what but tells how and the consequences).

Instructional design:
when they choose upon the first principle then there is a link between theory and practice. we should reintegrate design with instructional delivery. we can teach designers enough about learning.

so we need to upgrade the status of instructional design from a technique to a true profession.

e-learning /rosenberg – continue

building adn managing an E-learning infrastructure:

  • u need access
  • learning portals: provides gateways to learning resources.
  • LMS ; learning management systems: provides the functionality. it is essential for creating an environment where employees can plan, access, launch, and manage e-learning on their own. what can LMS do:
  1. a common online course catalog
  2. a common online registration system
  3. an up-front competency
  4. the ability to launch and track e-learning
  5. learning assessments
  6. management of learning materials
  7. integrating KM resources
  8. organizational readiness information
  9. customized reporting
  10. supporting collaborating and knowledge communities
  11. systems integration

however the system should have:

  1. authoring tool neutral
  2. vendor neutral
  3. browser neutral
  4. platform neutral
  5. client-side software
  6. plung-ins
  7. scalability
  8. firewall
  9. interface
  10. registration
  11. tracking
  12. personalization
  13. testing
  14. speed
  15. communications
  16. security
  17. upgrades
  18. technology
  19. vendor
  20. implemenetations
  21. support
  22. curriculum planning
  23. cost

Learning / knowledge objects:
it is the smallest “chunck” of information that stand alone and still have a meaning to a learner. such as a video. the costs are lower, it enables real customization of learning, it enables e-learning solutions to be very quickly.
the four C’s of success: culture, champions, communication and change:
building a learning culture:

  • what do not work:give customers what they want / create and distribute a robust course catalog / thinkl of training as another product and sell it / make training free / build competency models…but do not actually use them / call yourself a “corporate university” / move everything to technology / mandate training
  • what works: make the coach or the direct manager accountable for learning / focus at the enterprise level / integrate laerning directly into work / design well and certify where appropriate / pay for knowledge / everone’s a teacher / get rid of the training noise / eliuminate teh abil;ity to pay as a gatekeeper / make sense as easy as possible
  • u need the senior managers to support it. the following are signs that senior are NOT serious: work is assigned to people already overloaded or who do not have a clue / support or directives are given without any money / during budget cutting activities, the e-learning budget is always cut first / they refuse to learn anything about e-learning / leaves it to the team to make all the decisions / refuses to tell his boss anything about it / does not assign any deliverables or accountability / believes that going to training is either a perk or a sign of a performnce problem / approves other learning strategies that undermine e-learning / suggests that employee use of the web at work is disruptive.
  • how to to engage executives: build a sound business case / use success stories / educate executives / coach executives / overcome prior perceptions / work the politics / ignore the disbelievers

leadership and communication:
how to set up good communications:

  1. consolidate your strategy development
  2. trash old training communication vehicles
  3. use the web to communicate
  4. avoid selling and focus on value
  5. communicae value from the top down
  6. build support with coaches first
  7. build and promote an initial win
  8. control external messages
  9. encourage web savvy

in general you need to:

  1. do not put change management off until deployment
  2. one size does not fit all
  3. focus on change from start to finish and beyond
  4. be open and do not oversell

e-learning/rosenberg – continue

building a KM solution:

  1. determine if theeffort makes sense
  2. understand the community you are addressing
  3. know what you know
  4. master the content
  5. employ the technology of the enterprise
  6. develop a knowledge structure and test it
  7. prototype
  8. if you include performance support. it should make work easier, not harder
  9. plan for the running of the KM system, not just the building
  10. work to generate the support you’ss need going forward
  11. one portal
  12. don;t stop at document distribution
  13. understand the value of time
  14. establish key KM role: information architect, editorial and publishing, online KM librarian, knowledge owner, content contributor/author, community facilitator
  15. build in collaboration
  16. balance codification (explicit knowledge) and collaboration (tacit knowledge)
  17. incent and reward participation
  18. do not be afraid to “hang” on line training from your KM system.

Integrating e-learning and classroom learning:

  1. conduct a thorough needs assessment
  2. base your architecture design on the competencies you wish to build
  3. keep the business need in min
  4. test your architecture assumptions with all stakeholders
  5. start by associating classroom learning with application and teamwork, and e-learning with content and tools
  6. use existing source materials, if available
  7. use the web to link all learning component
  8. help people learn how to learn
  9. think “precision learning”
  10. create and maintain a community on the web
  11. use the classroom as an extension of your online learning community
  12. engage learners every step of the way

e-learning / Rosenberg – continue

the problems with CD learning: (CBT)

  1. the content was not any good.
  2. the learning was not authentic.
  3. form over substance
  4. one size did not fit all.
  5. the technology was a barrier.
  6. it was useless after the initial use.
  7. the learning was not reinforced.
  8. there was no support for it.
  9. it was against the culture.
  10. it was just plain boring.
  11. it was “shovelware.
on line training
  • goals that are meaningful and motivational.
  • learning by doing – the power of simulations.
  • learning from mistakes.
  • robust coaching and feedback.
  • expert modeling and stories.
  • authenticity
  • reuse after learning.
Knowledge management: 
KM is about creating communities where people can share what they know and other people can use this knowledge. it is not information posting only. it is a sharing and discussing place for people have something together like an organization. knowledge is more than what people know, it is what an organization knows.
type of KM
  1. explicit: that is found in documents and training. it is easy described. 
  2. tacit: it is a hard one such as the skills that a leader has. it is difficult to convey that is why sharing it would help other people.
explicit and tacit are related to each other, they even interact.
however, Km benefits: 
  1. learning: learn and apply information in new situations
  2. vision and action: sees and reacts to the world around it
  3. memory: storehouse for the collective intelligence of the firm
  4. toolbox: access to performance support tolls and systems.
  5. creativity: serves as a brainstorming forum
  6. integration: brings the firm together 
KM levels
  1. document management
  2. information creation, sharing and management
  3. enterprise intelligence
Performance support: 
a tool or a system that helps you do a better and faster job with less cost and without having to learn directly. so the goal of it is to speed the individuals in their work with minimal support from people. such as: checklist, and electronic performance support tolls (EPST) that is delivered as stand alone software.
  • external support: most basic type of performance support: job aid, the oven documents, etc.
  • extrinsic support: the help that comes with softwares, or on line help. it requires that a worker would stop completely the work and focus on the info.
  • intrinsic support: adapts to user’s needs. such as the help resources and tool bars for Microsoft. user uses the help while working and in some it does the correction for him.