building adn managing an E-learning infrastructure:
- u need access
- learning portals: provides gateways to learning resources.
- LMS ; learning management systems: provides the functionality. it is essential for creating an environment where employees can plan, access, launch, and manage e-learning on their own. what can LMS do:
- a common online course catalog
- a common online registration system
- an up-front competency
- the ability to launch and track e-learning
- learning assessments
- management of learning materials
- integrating KM resources
- organizational readiness information
- customized reporting
- supporting collaborating and knowledge communities
- systems integration
however the system should have:
- authoring tool neutral
- vendor neutral
- browser neutral
- platform neutral
- client-side software
- curriculum planning
Learning / knowledge objects:
it is the smallest “chunck” of information that stand alone and still have a meaning to a learner. such as a video. the costs are lower, it enables real customization of learning, it enables e-learning solutions to be very quickly.
the four C’s of success: culture, champions, communication and change:
building a learning culture:
- what do not work:give customers what they want / create and distribute a robust course catalog / thinkl of training as another product and sell it / make training free / build competency models…but do not actually use them / call yourself a “corporate university” / move everything to technology / mandate training
- what works: make the coach or the direct manager accountable for learning / focus at the enterprise level / integrate laerning directly into work / design well and certify where appropriate / pay for knowledge / everone’s a teacher / get rid of the training noise / eliuminate teh abil;ity to pay as a gatekeeper / make sense as easy as possible
- u need the senior managers to support it. the following are signs that senior are NOT serious: work is assigned to people already overloaded or who do not have a clue / support or directives are given without any money / during budget cutting activities, the e-learning budget is always cut first / they refuse to learn anything about e-learning / leaves it to the team to make all the decisions / refuses to tell his boss anything about it / does not assign any deliverables or accountability / believes that going to training is either a perk or a sign of a performnce problem / approves other learning strategies that undermine e-learning / suggests that employee use of the web at work is disruptive.
- how to to engage executives: build a sound business case / use success stories / educate executives / coach executives / overcome prior perceptions / work the politics / ignore the disbelievers
leadership and communication:
how to set up good communications:
- consolidate your strategy development
- trash old training communication vehicles
- use the web to communicate
- avoid selling and focus on value
- communicae value from the top down
- build support with coaches first
- build and promote an initial win
- control external messages
- encourage web savvy
in general you need to:
- do not put change management off until deployment
- one size does not fit all
- focus on change from start to finish and beyond
- be open and do not oversell
building a KM solution:
- determine if theeffort makes sense
- understand the community you are addressing
- know what you know
- master the content
- employ the technology of the enterprise
- develop a knowledge structure and test it
- if you include performance support. it should make work easier, not harder
- plan for the running of the KM system, not just the building
- work to generate the support you’ss need going forward
- one portal
- don;t stop at document distribution
- understand the value of time
- establish key KM role: information architect, editorial and publishing, online KM librarian, knowledge owner, content contributor/author, community facilitator
- build in collaboration
- balance codification (explicit knowledge) and collaboration (tacit knowledge)
- incent and reward participation
- do not be afraid to “hang” on line training from your KM system.
Integrating e-learning and classroom learning:
- conduct a thorough needs assessment
- base your architecture design on the competencies you wish to build
- keep the business need in min
- test your architecture assumptions with all stakeholders
- start by associating classroom learning with application and teamwork, and e-learning with content and tools
- use existing source materials, if available
- use the web to link all learning component
- help people learn how to learn
- think “precision learning”
- create and maintain a community on the web
- use the classroom as an extension of your online learning community
- engage learners every step of the way
the problems with CD learning: (CBT)
- the content was not any good.
- the learning was not authentic.
- form over substance
- one size did not fit all.
- the technology was a barrier.
- it was useless after the initial use.
- the learning was not reinforced.
- there was no support for it.
- it was against the culture.
- it was just plain boring.
- it was “shovelware.
on line training:
- goals that are meaningful and motivational.
- learning by doing – the power of simulations.
- learning from mistakes.
- robust coaching and feedback.
- expert modeling and stories.
- reuse after learning.
KM is about creating communities where people can share what they know and other people can use this knowledge. it is not information posting only. it is a sharing and discussing place for people have something together like an organization. knowledge is more than what people know, it is what an organization knows.
type of KM:
- explicit: that is found in documents and training. it is easy described.
- tacit: it is a hard one such as the skills that a leader has. it is difficult to convey that is why sharing it would help other people.
explicit and tacit are related to each other, they even interact.
however, Km benefits:
- learning: learn and apply information in new situations
- vision and action: sees and reacts to the world around it
- memory: storehouse for the collective intelligence of the firm
- toolbox: access to performance support tolls and systems.
- creativity: serves as a brainstorming forum
- integration: brings the firm together
- document management
- information creation, sharing and management
- enterprise intelligence
a tool or a system that helps you do a better and faster job with less cost and without having to learn directly. so the goal of it is to speed the individuals in their work with minimal support from people. such as: checklist, and electronic performance support tolls (EPST) that is delivered as stand alone software.
- external support: most basic type of performance support: job aid, the oven documents, etc.
- extrinsic support: the help that comes with softwares, or on line help. it requires that a worker would stop completely the work and focus on the info.
- intrinsic support: adapts to user’s needs. such as the help resources and tool bars for Microsoft. user uses the help while working and in some it does the correction for him.
Author: Rosenberg, 2001
this book address the e-learning issues from an industry ankle. the author uses a lot of useful example from real life with real people.
- in business: “it is a means to an end” for better: cost, productivity, income and so on.
- in context of business: “it is the process by which people acquire new skills or knowledge for the purpose of enhancing their performance”. and again for less cost and better revenue.
Training: “to facilitating and improving performance”. but training is used when there is a need to shape the learning, to achieve a certain goal then the instruction is used. it can be used in different ways: in classroom, via the phone, or PC including lectures, case study, drill and practice, simulation, laboratories and small group work. training has the following 4 elements:
- an intent to enhance performance in a a certain way.
- a design that reflects that instructional strategy.
- the media.
- a more formalized easement
but when we have a situation of learning we need to be careful if it requires information or instruction. Instruction means training and information means knowledge management:
- focus on specific learning outcome.
- purpose defined by instructors
- based on users’ needs and characters
- sequenced for memory retention
- contains presentation, feedback, practice, etc
- focus on specific organization or content
- purpose defined by users
- based on the characteristics of targeted users and particular knowledge
- sequenced for reference
- centered on effective presentation
- comprehensive approach
- information: to be up-to-day
- open culture: that employees share their knowledge
- effective technology: not too cost and does the work.
the text based communication the e-learning depends on promotes and supports the collaborative and critical thinking since writing requires higher cognitive level than just face to face conversation. at the same time, teachers (since there are more time and space) ask more cognitive questions.
there are 3 element key of a community of inquiry: cognitive, social and teaching presence.
the technology of e-learning:
1. 1st generation: used text books. phone and e-mails. behaviorist. freedom in time and place.
2. 2nd generation: used cognitive theory, restrict for time or place. used computer assisted instruction (CD). the teacher is only for evaluation and guidnes.
3. 3rd generation: gives opportunity for students to recreate knowledge: collaborative and critical thinking. used audio, video and telecommunications.
4. 4th generation: used CMC, and all others.
it is the ability that people who belong to a community to show their real personality as people through the used communication medium.
how can the written communication channel replace the face-to -face communication where one can read the body language and hear the speech tone? students actually could overcome this problem while using the communication skills. it is good to mention here that the leanness of the medium depends on the task (purpose).