e-learning / Rosenberg – continue

the problems with CD learning: (CBT)

  1. the content was not any good.
  2. the learning was not authentic.
  3. form over substance
  4. one size did not fit all.
  5. the technology was a barrier.
  6. it was useless after the initial use.
  7. the learning was not reinforced.
  8. there was no support for it.
  9. it was against the culture.
  10. it was just plain boring.
  11. it was “shovelware.
on line training
  • goals that are meaningful and motivational.
  • learning by doing – the power of simulations.
  • learning from mistakes.
  • robust coaching and feedback.
  • expert modeling and stories.
  • authenticity
  • reuse after learning.
Knowledge management: 
KM is about creating communities where people can share what they know and other people can use this knowledge. it is not information posting only. it is a sharing and discussing place for people have something together like an organization. knowledge is more than what people know, it is what an organization knows.
type of KM
  1. explicit: that is found in documents and training. it is easy described. 
  2. tacit: it is a hard one such as the skills that a leader has. it is difficult to convey that is why sharing it would help other people.
explicit and tacit are related to each other, they even interact.
however, Km benefits: 
  1. learning: learn and apply information in new situations
  2. vision and action: sees and reacts to the world around it
  3. memory: storehouse for the collective intelligence of the firm
  4. toolbox: access to performance support tolls and systems.
  5. creativity: serves as a brainstorming forum
  6. integration: brings the firm together 
KM levels
  1. document management
  2. information creation, sharing and management
  3. enterprise intelligence
Performance support: 
a tool or a system that helps you do a better and faster job with less cost and without having to learn directly. so the goal of it is to speed the individuals in their work with minimal support from people. such as: checklist, and electronic performance support tolls (EPST) that is delivered as stand alone software.
  • external support: most basic type of performance support: job aid, the oven documents, etc.
  • extrinsic support: the help that comes with softwares, or on line help. it requires that a worker would stop completely the work and focus on the info.
  • intrinsic support: adapts to user’s needs. such as the help resources and tool bars for Microsoft. user uses the help while working and in some it does the correction for him. 


Title: E-learning
Author: Rosenberg, 2001

this book address the e-learning issues from an industry ankle. the author uses a lot of useful example from real life with real people.


  • in business: “it is a means to an end” for better: cost, productivity, income and so on.
  • in context of business: “it is the process by which people acquire new skills or knowledge for the purpose of enhancing their performance”. and again for less cost and better revenue.

Training: “to facilitating and improving performance”. but training is used when there is a need to shape the learning, to achieve a certain goal then the instruction is used. it can be used in different ways: in classroom, via the phone, or PC including lectures, case study, drill and practice, simulation, laboratories and small group work. training has the following 4 elements:

  1. an intent to enhance performance in a a certain way.
  2. a design that reflects that instructional strategy.
  3. the media.
  4. a more formalized easement

but when we have a situation of learning we need to be careful if it requires information or instruction. Instruction means training and information means knowledge management:


  • focus on specific learning outcome.
  • purpose defined by instructors
  • based on users’ needs and characters
  • sequenced for memory retention
  • contains presentation, feedback, practice, etc


  • focus on specific organization or content
  • purpose defined by users
  • based on the characteristics of targeted users and particular knowledge
  • sequenced for reference
  • centered on effective presentation

Learners need:

  1. access
  2. comprehensive approach
  3. balance

business needs:

  1. information: to be up-to-day
  2. open culture: that employees share their knowledge
  3. effective technology: not too cost and does the work.

e-learning in the 21st century: the book – continue

the text based communication the e-learning depends on promotes and supports the collaborative and critical thinking since writing requires higher cognitive level than just face to face conversation. at the same time, teachers (since there are more time and space) ask more cognitive questions.

there are 3 element key of a community of inquiry: cognitive, social and teaching presence.

the technology of e-learning:
1. 1st generation: used text books. phone and e-mails. behaviorist. freedom in time and place.
2. 2nd generation: used cognitive theory, restrict for time or place. used computer assisted instruction (CD). the teacher is only for evaluation and guidnes.
3. 3rd generation: gives opportunity for students to recreate knowledge: collaborative and critical thinking. used audio, video and telecommunications.
4. 4th generation: used CMC, and all others.
Social presence:
it is the ability that people who belong to a community to show their real personality as people through the used communication medium.

how can the written communication channel replace the face-to -face communication where one can read the body language and hear the speech tone? students actually could overcome this problem while using the communication skills. it is good to mention here that the leanness of the medium depends on the task (purpose).


i start read E-learning in the 21 th century by:Garrison and Anderson ( 2003).
very interesting book for those who are interested in the distance education in general and e-learning in particular. so far the book is easy to read (and that what i notice of Anderson’s writing style).
first Part:
at the beginning the authors identified e-learning as learning via the internet. they are talking about how education is shifting from teaching into teach students about learning by themselves and that is because of the huge information explosion this age witnesses. so we need to help the students to deal with this information explosion by teaching them how to be better learners for life: self-directed learning. in addition to focus on the development of the critical thinking.

they also stress the idea that they depend on: collaborative and nonconstructive view of teaching and learning. where the relationship is strong and needed between the personal knowledge (personal making sense) and the social influence in shaping this educational experience. so this is a relationship between inner and outer worlds. this view is supported by Dewey (1938) who says that this relationship between the subjective and objective worlds is important in away that collaborative allows ideas to be communicated and confirmed. in this sense, the internet provides a powerful source of information but it needs continuity to be educative.

educational engineering

the book i am reading is: Educational Technology: the development of a concept. the first chapter presents the history of the educational technology’s name and how it has been influenced by three main issues: engineering, science and Audiovisual education. the argument in this chapter shows that the field should be named: educational engineering for the nature of the field of:
1. being systematic
2. applications of science
3. emphasized the efficient utilization of resources
4. the goal is the production of wealth.
the nature of the educational field meets the engineering’s one. so both share the same concepts.

on the other hand, the educational field uses science in different ways:
1. study children in educational settings,
2. Dewey’s idealization of scientific inquiry as a general model of reflective thinking.
3. since is used measurement and standards to control predictable outcomes.

then was the influence of the Audiovisual educational movement that introduced the hardware and the equipment AV after the WWII into the classrooms.